211.1 Overview #
Bollards play a crucial role in various applications, serving different purposes such as security, safety, protection, traffic control, lighting, manual operation, automatic functionality, and mooring. Each bollard type requires specific design criteria to fulfill its intended purpose effectively. This article will explore the key points to consider when designing different types of bollards. Before embarking on the design process for bollards, it is crucial to first identify the structured Bollard Name. This step ensures that the design process starts with the correct bollard type in mind
211.2 Security Bollards #
Security bollards are primarily aimed at mitigating the threat of hostile vehicles. They are fixed bollards designed to withstand vehicle impact. Security bollards can be mounted either deep or shallow. The foundation design is a critical aspect, ensuring the bollard’s stability and resistance to impact. Compliance with standards like BSi PAS 68 or ASTM F2656 is essential for assessing the bollard’s crash resistance. In the case of shallow mounting, the spacing between bollards should be considered, as shallow mounting typically involves a set of bollards.
211.3 Safety Bollards #
Safety bollards are intended to mitigate vehicle accidents and protect pedestrians or workers in industrial settings. These fixed bollards focus on preventing accidental collisions. The foundation design remains crucial, ensuring stability and strength. Compliance with standards such as BSi PAS 13, ATSM MH31.2, ASTM F3016, or BSi PAS 170-1 is necessary, depending on the specific application and mounting type (surface or deep). Similar to security bollards, shallow mounting involves a set of bollards, requiring appropriate spacing considerations in the design stage.
211.4 Protection Bollards #
Protection bollards are designed to safeguard outdoor assets, such as buildings, infrastructure, or equipment. Fixed bollards are utilized for this purpose, focusing on preventing accidental collisions and damage. The foundation design plays a vital role in ensuring stability and resistance to impact. Compliance with standards like ASTM F3016 or BSi PAS 170-1 is important for assessing the bollard’s ability to protect outdoor assets. Shallow mounting, typically involving a set of bollards, necessitates considering appropriate spacing in the design stage.
211.5 Traffic Bollards #
Traffic bollards are specifically used to control and direct traffic flow. These fixed bollards serve as visual cues for drivers, delineating lanes, pedestrian areas, or restricted zones. The foundation design is crucial to ensure stability and durability. Traffic bollards typically come in two mounting types: deep and surface. Compliance with standards like BS 8442 or EN 12767 is essential for assessing the bollard’s passive safety features.
211.6 Lighting Bollards #
Lighting bollards are designed to provide illumination along driveways and walkways. Fixed bollards with deep or surface mounting options are used for this purpose. The primary focus in lighting bollard design is the lighting component itself. It is crucial to comply with outdoor electrical appliance standards, including those set by organizations like Electric Utility Service Equipment Requirements Committee (EUSERC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), International Building Code (IBC), National Electric Code (NEC), National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), National Electric Safety Code (NESC), Underwriter Laboratories (UL), and The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES).
211.7 Manual Bollards #
Manual bollards come in three types: removable, foldable, and retractable. These bollards are operated manually and serve various purposes, such as access control or temporary traffic management. The durability of the mechanism is crucial in their design. Specific standards relating to manual bollards should be referenced to ensure safety and reliability.
211.8 Automatic Bollards #
Automatic bollards are equipped with motorized drives for automated operation. They offer convenience and efficiency in applications such as building or road access control. Automatic bollards come in three types of drives: electro-hydraulic, electro-pneumatic, and electro-mechanical. Similar to manual bollards, the durability of the mechanism is of utmost importance in their design. Compliance with relevant standards for automatic bollards should be considered to ensure safe and reliable operation.
211.9 Mooring Bollards #
Mooring bollards are primarily used in marine environments for securing vessels to docks or piers. They come in various shapes, including Tee, Horn, Kidney, Double bitt, Single bitt, and Pillar. The bollard capacity, which refers to its load-bearing capability, is crucial in their design to ensure they can withstand the forces associated with mooring operations. Compliance with marine industry standards, such as those set by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), is essential to guarantee the bollard’s suitability for the intended application.