411.1 Introduction #
Bollards play a crucial role in various applications, ranging from security and traffic management to lighting and mooring. When designing a bollards layout, it is essential to consider the specific requirements of each group of bollards. This article classifies bollards into four groups:
- Group A: Protection Bollards
- Group B: Traffic Bollards
- Group C: Lighting Bollards
- Group D: Mooring Bollards
Each group has unique factors that must be considered to ensure an effective and efficient bollards layout.
411.2 Group A: Protection Bollards #
This group includes four out of the seven primary purposes of bollards: building security, public safety, asset protection, and access control. These four bollard purposes share two requirements, namely impact resistance and involvement in preventing or controlling vehicle access. However, each of these four bollard purposes will be detailed separately in the related sections of this guideline.
411.2.1 Factors to Consider in Protection Bollards Layout
Pedestrians Accessibility (Spacing, ADA Requirements): Ensure adequate spacing between bollards to allow pedestrian flow and accessibility, while also complying with ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) requirements for wheelchair accessibility.
Building Type (Government, Commercial, Residential, etc.): Consider the specific needs and vulnerabilities of the building based on its type. Government buildings may require higher security measures compared to residential buildings.
Emergency and Maintenance Vehicle Access: Design the bollards layout to allow easy access for emergency and maintenance vehicles. Consider the placement of removable or retractable bollards to accommodate such access.
Underground Services: Take into account the location of underground services, such as utility lines and pipes, to avoid any interference or damage during the installation of bollards.
Design with Maintenance in Mind: Ensure that the chosen bollard design allows for ease of maintenance, including inspection, repair, and replacement if necessary.
Enhance Visually and Consider Future Change: Incorporate bollard designs that enhance the aesthetics of the surrounding environment while considering the potential for future changes, such as building expansions or modifications.
Public Safety in Case of Building Evacuation: Design the bollards layout in a way that facilitates safe and efficient evacuation in emergency situations, providing clear paths for pedestrians away from the building.
411.2.2 Additional Factors to Consider for security bollards layout:
Site Layout: Evaluate the site layout to determine if other security measures, such as vehicle restraint measures (VRM), can be employed instead of or in conjunction with bollards. Consider the possibility of alternative solutions or early integration of security measures during site design to reduce costs.
Threat and Risk Assessment: Perform a thorough threat and risk assessment to identify specific areas, including perimeter, beyond perimeter, site, building, and assets. Assess the risks associated with each area and provide recommendations for bollard placement accordingly.
411.3 Group B: Traffic Bollards #
411.3.1 Factors to Consider for Traffic Bollards Layout:
Classifications of Roadways: Different road classifications, such as highways, city streets, or residential areas, require different traffic management strategies. Tailor the bollards layout to suit the specific roadway classification.
Classifications of Traffic Bollard Purpose: Identify the purpose of traffic bollards, whether it is for lane separation, traffic calming, or directing traffic. Each purpose requires a unique layout and placement strategy.
Traffic Volume: Consider the volume of traffic on the road to determine the appropriate spacing and placement of bollards. High-traffic areas may require more frequent bollard installation.
Traffic Speed: Take into account the speed of traffic and design the bollards layout accordingly. For higher speeds, consider installing crash-rated bollards for increased safety.
Presence of Pedestrian Crossings: Identify the locations of pedestrian crossings and incorporate bollards in a way that enhances pedestrian safety. Proper placement can help separate pedestrian and vehicular traffic.
Designated Vehicle and Bicycle Lanes: Consider the presence of designated vehicle and bicycle lanes and design the bollards layout to ensure clear separation and safety for all road users.
411.4 Group C: Lighting Bollards #
411.4.1 Factors to Consider for Lighting Bollards Layout:
Area of Landscape: Assess the specific area of the landscape that requires lighting and determine the number and placement of lighting bollards accordingly.
Height of the Bollard Fixture: Consider the desired height of the lighting bollard fixtures to ensure optimal illumination and visibility for the designated area.
Brightness and Wattage of LED Lamp: Choose the appropriate brightness level and wattage of LED lamps based on the specific lighting requirements of the area.
Bollard Optics Type: Select the suitable optics type for the lighting bollards, such as diffused or directional, depending on the desired lighting distribution and effect.
Surrounding Light Availability: Evaluate the availability of natural and artificial light sources in the surroundings. Adjust the lighting bollards layout to complement the existing lighting conditions.
Personal Preference: Consider the preferences and aesthetic requirements of the landscape or property owner when selecting the design and style of the lighting bollards.
411.5 Group D: Mooring Bollards #
411.5.1 Factors to Consider for Mooring Bollards Layout:
Equal Distribution: Ensure an equal distribution of mooring bollards along the berth to facilitate safe and secure mooring for vessels.
Vessel Size and Load: Consider the size and load of the vessels that will be moored. Install mooring bollards with sufficient strength and load-bearing capacity to accommodate the expected vessels.
Mooring Line Angles: Determine the optimal mooring line angles based on the prevailing conditions, including wind, waves, and current, to ensure effective and safe mooring.
Accessibility and Flexibility: Design the mooring bollards layout to allow easy access for vessel operators and accommodate variations in vessel size and positioning.
Berth Configuration: Consider the configuration of the berth, including its length, width, and orientation, to determine the appropriate placement and spacing of mooring bollards.
Load-Bearing Capacity: Ensure that the mooring bollards have the necessary load-bearing capacity to handle the anticipated forces exerted by moored vessels.
Clearances and Obstructions: Identify and mitigate any potential obstructions or clearance issues that may hinder the effective use of mooring bollards.