Bollard Crash Testing

The Crash Testing

Crash rated bollards are designed to withstand impacts from specific types of vehicles moving at a specific speed rate. The major standard test vehicles are passenger cars, pickup, or van as well as heavy-duty trucks.

With the crash rating system, it became easier to select the right vehicle security bollards and apply them to a specific security situation.

It is always recommended to go for vehicle security bollards with crash rating certificates and documented test results.

Crash Testing Standards

PAS 68 (UK)

British standard which identifies impact test methods, tolerances, test vehicle type and performance criteria that needs to be met.

IWA 14.1 (UK)

International Workshop Agreement which specifies the essential impact performance need for a vehicle security barrier and a test method for rating its performance when subjected to a single impact by a test vehicle.

K-rating DOS (USA)

The DOS (US Department of State) developed the commonly used crash testing standards for crash rated bollards. For certification, the barrier must meet DOS standards and be tested by an independent crash test facility. K-rating is the ability to stop a truck of a specific weight and traveling at a specific speed from breaching posts more than 1m.

Major K-ratings are K4, K8, and K12. These are designed to withstand the effects of the impact caused by vehicles of various sizes moving at 30 mph, 40 mph and 50 mph respectively.

ASTM F2656-07 (USA)

Standard Test Method for Vehicle Crash Testing of Perimeter Barriers for the selection and approval for use at DOS facilities.

There are three ASTM ratings. These are M30, M40, and M50 respectively. These are designed to withstand the effects of the impact caused by vehicles of various sizes moving at 30 mph, 40 mph and 50 mph respectively.

CWA 16221 (UK)

CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA) 16221 was prepared to address the needs of organizations who want assurance that VSBs will provide the level of impact resistance which is sought. It identifies impact test methods, test vehicle type and performance criteria that need to be met in order to conform to it. It also provides guidance on the selection, installation, and use of VSBs to make sure that they are selected and placed as effectively as possible.

ASTM WK13074 (USA) (Under Development)

The low-speed testing standard that sets the requirements for vehicle protective devices such as bollards, to protect against impact from vehicles traveling at speeds of 30 mph or lower.

BSi PAS 170-1:2017 (UK)

It describes an efficient way of testing the performance of a single bollard when hit by a vehicle at a low speed.

Crash Testing Procedures

The crash rating is for both the bollard and it’s foundation together, the construction of bollard and foundation at the site should be as the design drawing submitted for the crash test.

Some of the crash tests applied on two or three bollards as a set of one barrier, the same arrangement should be constructed at the site. One bollard will not be certified if installed individually.

One certificate covers one standard but it can be indicated in the testing report that the bollard also meets the requirements of other standards.


The graphic image above is a comparison of all testing standards.