Additional grouped penetration distances are classified as P1 through P4. The terms used in vehicle testing are defined within each testing document. These terms can vary according to the test method employed.

Active Security Bollard

A vehicle security bollard with movable parts. It is operated manually or mechanically to open or close a vehicle passageway. This bollard system can include automated retractable rising bollards operated by power-up equipment or by personnel.

Anti-Ram bollard Systems

Vehicle security bollard systems used on sites to control vehicular movement and to deter or delay vehicle attack on the perimeter of the site.


A mass that’s securely fixed to a vehicle.

Blast Standoff

The distance between an important asset and a secured perimeter.

Counter Terrorist

Vehicle security bollard (VSB) systems that protect against vehicular attacks and threats from terrorists and criminals. Security bollards are resilient and made to withstand motor vehicle impact. They enforce traffic calming, and they deter and delay attacks from hostile vehicles.


A security bollard tested for vehicle crash. Rating systems are defined by the weight, speed, and penetration distance of the vehicle.

Design Basis Threat (DBT)

Hostile action on a property that must be protected. A DBT should include a threat description, threat method, threat strength, threat level and the possibility of a threat happening.


The distance between the security bollard datum line and the location of the furthest major debris.

Emergency Fast Operation (EFO)

An emergency operation with an operating time shorter than a normal safety operation.

Fixed Security Bollard

A fixed vertical post that’s embedded within a foundation. A fixed security bollard is designed to prevent vehicle passage.

Hostile Vehicles

Vehicles used to penetrate a secure area and having malicious intent, or vehicles used to transport an explosive device into a secure area.


Hostile Vehicle Mitigation 

PAS 68

Pas 68 was created to serve the needs of organizations seeking reassurance about whether a vehicle security bollard system can deliver the degree of impact resistance they need. Two tests are used to assess the performance classification of a VSB system:
(1) The vehicle impact method, and
(2) The design method.

Impact Angle

An angle on the horizontal plane. The impact angle between the face of the intended impact and the approaching test vehicle’s path toward the test item.

Impact Point

The impact point is the first point where the test vehicle contacts the test item.

Inertial Test Vehicle Mass

The mass of a vehicle and its ballast.


Kinetic energy level for a vehicle security bollard. This American classification measures the strength of a security bollard. It has three levels: K4, K8 and K12.


Related to K-rating, the L-rating is the vehicular penetration distance rating for a vehicle security bollard. L-ratings have three levels: L1, L2 and L3.

Leading Edge Of Goods Vehicle Load Platform

This is the leading or forward edge of the top surface of a load bed that intersects with the headboard. It may include the transverse line where we install the headboard.

Legitimate Vehicles

Vehicles that are not used with malicious intent and have permission to enter a secure area.

Major Debris

An item with a mass of 25 kg. or more. Due to impact, the item (or major debris) has become detached from:
(1) The test vehicle, or
(2) The security bollard system, or
(3) The vehicle’s ballast
and has exceeded the original position of the vehicle security bollard system’s datum line. Including the dispersion distance of major debris in the test report can help with choosing an appropriate VSB system.

Operational Requirements Document

This is a needs statement based on an in-depth analysis of the problems we need to solve and the outcomes we need to achieve.

Passive Security Bollard

A passive security bollard with no movable components. This is a fixed bollard.

Physical Security

A type of security bollard designed to prevent unauthorized access to a protected place.

Risk Management

A process to set up a protection system to mitigate vulnerabilities to threats and to cut any risks to a reasonable level.


The gap between the façade and the place where an unauthorized vehicle can park.

Secure Area

A space that’s protected by a secure perimeter.

Secure Perimeter

A defined boundary, such as pedestrian perimeter security bollard combined with one or more VSB systems having physical security features.


A place where a secured area could be created.

Sit Perimeter

The most distant border of the site; the property line.

Stand-Off Distance

The gap between an asset and the potential point for a threat.

Test Items

One or more items that make up a vehicle security bollard system when combined with their foundations.

Test Systems

Test systems contain all the equipment needed for a test and for specific foundations.

Test Vehicles

A test vehicle is a production model vehicle. It represents vehicles used in the country where it will be used. Test vehicles have an unmodified chassis, a load bed and a front end. They are used in impact tests to know how well a VSB system performs. A test vehicle can be modified to resist the forward movement of ballast, as long as that modification doesn’t impact the vehicle’s behavior. (Additional information about test vehicles is provided in BS EN 1317-1:2010, 5.2. BS ISO 6813 contains terminology used for road vehicle collision classifications.)

Test Vehicle Impact Speed

This is the speed of a test vehicle as it approaches a position no more than 8M from the point of impact.

Threat Analysis

A combination of:
(1) Impact of the loss rating, and
(2) The vulnerability rating.
These two ratings can be used to evaluate a potential threat to a facility using colored cells. Blue means low risk, green means medium risk, yellow means high risk and red means very high risk.

Threat Assessment

Supportive process to evaluate threats and define the possible consequences for humans, property and equipment.


The adjustment between cost and performance.

Traffic Calming

Smart highway design or the use of physical highway measures that encourage vehicles to slow down.

Traffic Management

The guidance, diversion and segregation of vehicles on a roadway that helps to reduce potential hazards, lessens congestion and enhances the safety of those using the road or working near or on a highway.


Common information about new threats and security bollard systems.

Unladen Mass

This represents the test vehicle’s mass minus its ballast. Unladen mass includes the standard equipment, engine oil and coolant provided by the manufacturer, but only a minimum amount of fuel.


Vehicle access control point.


Vehicle-borne improvised explosive device.


Vehicle dynamics assessment.


Vehicle Security Barriers. Security bollards are used to prevent potentially hostile vehicular access to a site.

Vehicle Access Control

The physical direction of vehicles coming and going from an area through widely placed entrances.

Vehicle Penetration

This is the maximum amount of distance between the front edge of a load platform of a day cab vehicle as indicated on that vehicle’s chassis. It can also represent the intersection of the bottom of a vehicle’s windscreen and the “A” pillar of a 4×4 pickup truck or a car. This would include the original rear face of the vehicle security bollard system’s datum line if measured at 90 degrees from the vehicle’s security bollard system while analyzing video, film or instrumentation during or after impact.

Vehicle Penetration Distance

Maximum perpendicular distance between the vehicle security bollards datum line and either:
Where there is a less than 90° yaw and/or pitch of the test vehicle and the vehicle datum point, or
Where there is a greater than 90° yaw and/or pitch of the test vehicle and the furthest part of the load bed for N1, N2 and N3 vehicles and the furthest part of the vehicle (M1 and N1G vehicles) achieved either dynamically (during impact) or statically (following impact); whichever is greater.

Vehicle Restraint Measures (VRM)

Physical features or systems used to influence the behavior of a driver or to have an impact on the vehicle. Examples include:
Traffic control barriers in car parks
Road curbs

Vehicle Security Bollard System

A physical vehicle bollard system has operational mechanisms, power sources and controls to prevent, limit and control access to an area by vehicles or to stop and redirect impacting vehicles. Pas 69 provides support and guidance for organizations considering the implementation of a vehicle security bollard system. It focuses on key issues to address before adding a VSB system to an existing security program.


A combination of:
A target’s attractiveness, and
The defense level of the target.

Vulnerability Assessment

A process performed after a threat assessment to define:
The impact of loss from an attack, and The vulnerability of a property to an attack.